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ENTROPY. =================... Thanks to: " HFAL", " Bored chemist", Bill Skocpol and

```Jim Whitescarver I corrected and wrote this article.
```
```Entropy. / My opinion /.
```

=======... 1. Henry Poincare named the conception of "entropy " as a " surprising abstract ". 2.

```Lev  Landau (Dau) wrote:
```

" A question about the physical basis of the entropy monotonous increasing law remains open ". 3. The famous mathematician John von Neumann said to "the father of information theory" Claude Shannon:

```" Name it "entropy"  then in discussions
```

nobody knows, what "entropy" basically is ". =============.. 1. Between 1850 - 1865 Rudolf Clausius published a paper

```in which  he called " The energy conservation law" as
" The first law  of  thermodynamics". But in our nature the
heat always flows  from the higher temperature to the
lower one and never back.  In our everyday life we don't see
the heat itself rises from cold to hot. So, it seemed  that
in thermodynamics " The energy  conservation law"
```

wasn’t kept, this law was broken. But Clausius had another opinion. He thought: I know people believe that this process is irreversible, but I am sure that " The energy conservation law"

```is universal law and it must be correct also for thermodynamic
```

process. So, how can I save this law ? Probably, in the thermodynamic process there is something

```that we don't  know. Maybe, there is some degradation
of the total energy in the system which never disappears .
```

Perhaps, there is some non-useful heat, some unseen process , some unknown dark energy , some another form of potential

```energy/heat itself which can  transform  heat  from the cold
body to the warm one. I will call  this conception as " entropy"
```

and it will mean that changes of entropy (dS) can be calculated for reversible process and may be defined as the ratio of the

```quantity of energy taken up (dQ) to the thermodynamic
temperature (T), i.e. dS= dQ /T.
```

And because I don't know how this process goes I won't call it as a law but as " The second principle of thermodynamics " which says that " the entropy of an isolated system always

``` increases ". Another version: " No process is possible
in which the  only result is the transfer of heat from a hotter
to a colder body.  It is possible some reversible process which
is unknown now ."
```

2. Between 1870 - 1880 Ludwig Boltzmann said: " Clausius is right. But I can add more to his entropy conception. First. According to Classic physics when an isolated thermodynamic

```system comes to a thermal equilibrium all particles stop their
moving. From one hand it is correct. But the system cannot be
at thermal equilibrium (in the state of thermo death) all the time.
The situation in the system must change.
```

Therefore I say that at the thermal equilibrium the entropy (some unknown dark/potential energy ) of the system will reach maximum and as a result , the thermal equilibrium

```of the system will change.
```

Second. I don't know how exactly the thermal equilibrium of the system

```changes. But I can give  probabilistic / statistical interpretation
```

of this changing process. I can write " The second principle of

```thermodynamics" by a formula: S= k log W and this formula
```

says:" the entropy ( heat) of the system is the collective result of mechanical motion and friction of all the particles (k)." I will call it as " The second law of Thermodynamics." 3 In 1900 Max Planck said: Clausius and Boltzmann are both right. But all my life I worked almost exclusively on problems

```related to thermodynamics. And I am sure that the " The second
law of Thermodynamics" , concerning entropy, is deeper and it
says more than is generally accepted. I am sure the Boltzmann's
```

probabilistic /statistical version of "The second law of Thermodynamics " is not completed, is not final. Please, look at the graph of the radiation curves of the " black body". They are very similar to those curves which are calculated by Maxwell for the velocity (i.e. energy) distribution of gas molecules in a closed container. Could this black body radiation problem be studied in the same way as Maxwell's ideal gas.... ...electromagnetic waves ? This problem of connection between radiation of black body and Maxwell's Electrodynamics theory doesn't give me peace. Maxwell's theory can tell everything about the emission, absorption and propagation of the radiation,

```but nothing about the energy distribution at thermal
```

equilibrium. What to do? How to be ? After trying every possible approach using traditional classical applications of the laws of thermodynamics I was desperated. And I was forced to consider that the relation between entropy, Boltzmann's probability version and Maxwell's theory is possible to solve by suggestion ,

```that  energy is radiated and absorbed with discrete
individual  quanta particle (E= hv). So, now I must write
" The second law of Thermodynamics " by formula:
hv = k log W.
```

But if I look to the Clausius inequality I see that entropy

```is energy divided per temperature.
So the formula hv = klogW is  hv = kT logW  I think.
```
```I was so surprised and sceptical of such interpretation  the
entropy  that  I spent years trying to explain this result
```

in another , less revolutionary way. It was difficult for me

```to accept this formula and to understand it essence .
```

It was hard for me to believe in my own discovery.

```==================..
```

My conclusion. How to understand this formula? Which process does formula (hv = kT logW ) describe ? 1. In 1877 Boltzmann suggested that the energy/mass state of a physical system (of ideal gas ) could be discreted.

```This idea was written with formula: R/N=k. It means:
there are particles with energy/mass state (k) in physical
```

system of ideal gas . They dont move, they are in the

```state of rest.
```

2.

```In 1900 Planck followed Boltzmann's  method of dividing.
```

Planck suggested that energy was radiated and absorbed with discrete "energy elements" - " quantum of energy"- - " Planck's action constant"- (h) . This fact means: electron produces heat, setting in mechanical motion and

```friction  all particles. This fact is described with Planck's
formula:   hv = kTlogW.
```

3. In which reference frame does this process take place? In thermodynamical reference frame of ideal gas and black body (M. Laue called this model as Kirchhoff,s vacuum). Now it is considered that these models are abstract ones which do not exist in nature. On my opinion these models explain

``` the situation in the real Vacuum (T=0K) very well.
```

4.

```For my opinion the formula (hv = kT logW ) says:
```

a) The reason of " entropy" , the source of thermal equilibrium's fluctuation , the source of Vacuum fluctuation is an action of the particle /electron, which has energy: E = hv (hf). b) The process of Vacuum fluctuation depends on collective motions of all particles (k) and will be successful if enough

```statistical  quantity of Boltzmann's  particles ( kT logW)
surround the electron.
```

c) Which process does the formula (hv = kT logW ) say about ? This formula describes the possibility of realization of macro state from micro state. This formula explains the beginning conditions of gravitation, the beginning conditions of star formation. 1.

```hv = kT logW.
hv > kT logW.
hv < kT.
```

2.

```hv --> He II --> He I -->
```

( P. Kapitza , L. Landau , E.L. Andronikashvili theories). (Superconductivity, superfluidity.)

```3.
```

Plasma reaction... --> 4. Thermonuclear reactions ...-->......etc.

d) Thanks to Entropy the homogeneous Vacuum is broken. Thanks to Entropy the micro process changes into macro process. Thanks to Entropy the stars formation takes place. Thanks to Entropy " the ultraviolet catastrophe" is absent. Thanks to Entropy our Milky Way doesn't change into radiation. Thanks to Entropy the process of creating elements takes place. Thanks to Entropy the process of evolution is going. e) One physicist said :" The entropy is only a shadow of energy“. Maybe now somebody can understand why entropy is a shadow. And maybe now somebody will understand why " The Law of conservation and transformation of energy"

```is also correct for thermodynamic system.
```

fg) Why is " The second law of Thermodynamics" so universal? Because it is based on

```" The  Law of conservation  and transformation of energy"
```

And this law is not the simple accounting solution of debit and credit.

```The sense of this law is dipper and it says more than is usually accepted.
```

===========.. P.S.

```It took me about three months to write this brief article.
```

Plus about three years searching for the key of entropy problem. Plus about twenty-three years trying to understand the essence of physical laws and formulas. ==============..

``` Best wishes.
```

Israel Socratus. http://www.socratus.com http://www.wbabin.net/

```#
[A law] is more impressive the greater the simplicity of its
```

premises, the more different are the kinds of things it relates, and the more extended its range of applicability. Therefore, the deep impression which classical thermodynamics made on me. It is the only physical theory of universal content, which I am convinced, that within the framework of applicability of its basic concepts will never be overthrown. / Albert Einstein/

The law that entropy always increases -- the second law of thermodynamics -- holds I think, the supreme position among the laws of Nature. If someone points out to you that your pet theory of the universe is in disagreement with Maxwell's equations - then so much worse for Maxwell equations. If it is found to be contradicted by observation - well these experimentalists do bungle things sometimes. But if your theory is found to be against the second law of Thermodynamics, I can give you no hope; there is nothing for it but to collapse in deepest humiliation. / Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington / ============================... The secret of words 'God', 'soul ', 'religion', ‘ Existence’, 'dualism of consciousness', 'human being' is hidden

```in the “Theory of Light quanta”.
```

===============.. THE GENESIS. 1.

```    T = 0K.
```

2.

```   C/D=pi ,  E=Mc^2, R/N=k ,  h = 0 , i^2=-1 .
```

3.

```    h = 1, c=1. ( light quanta).
```

4.

```      h = h /2pi ,  c>1.
E = hw,   e^2 = hca  ( electron).
The Lorentz   transformations.
```

5.

```    Star formation:
e- -  k  -  He II - He I - rotating He - thermonuclear reaction:
a) hf > kT
b) hf = kT
c) kT > hf
```

6.

```    p ( proton)
```

7.

```   Evolution of interaction:
a) electromagnetic,
b) nuclear,
c) biological.
```

8.

```    Laws:
a) The Law of conservation and transformation energy.
b) The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle / law.
c) The Pauli Exclusion Principle/ law.
```

9.

```     Testing:
theory and practice.
```
###### == ===== ==== Bearbeiten

...the more a subject is understood,

```the more briefly it may be explained.
```

/ Thomas Jefferson,

```letter to Joseph Milligan, April 6, 1816 /
```

=================....

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